Simulate Vertical Handover

The concept of vertical handover includes moving between the wireless accesses technological advances like Wi-Fi (source) to 4G (target). However, it is unlike horizontal handover that dramatically changes the ground station or access point while remaining inside the same wireless communications technology. As a result, the vertical handover framework must be enhanced. We guide research scholars to simulate vertical handover projects using various network simulation tools.

What are the major considerations of vertical handover?

  • Particularly the decision phase is the most critical as sensor and transceiver systems advance at a rapid pace
  • Also, it allows for the collection of more effective criteria and the making rapid and accurate decision making at every moment

Important Features of Vertical Handover

Additionally, vertical handover has several notable concerns that are mentioned below

  • An imprecise vertical handover choice can incur network resources, hence the algorithm must be dependable
  • To equalize traffic demands on the network, the algorithm is required to disperse mobile devices equally
  • The algorithm must be precise to detect the requirement to boost the transmission rate to cellular network devices

Simulate vertical handover is a major research guidance arm of the technical support team who have here attempted to provide you an overall analysis on methods involved in simulating vertical handover projects. Let us first start with the methods existing in vertical handover. 

Methods for vertical handover

  • Single and multi-metric handover decisions
  • Context-aware methods
  • Multi-attribute handover decision making or MADM
  • Computational handover decisions
  • Media independent handover decisions

These are the fundamental methods used to simulate vertical handover processes wherein we gained huge knowledge, skill, and expertise to work with them. For advanced details on these methods, you can visit our website. Let us now talk about the important phases in vertical handover 

Important phases in vertical handover

The following is a brief technical note on different phases involved in vertical handover and the components associated with them

  • Handoff initiation phase
    • Context information related to network (cost, data rate, coverage, quality of service and so on) and mobile terminals (speed, user preference, subscription and many more) are studied
  • Handoff decision phase
    • Handoff decision criteria include the following
      • Data rate, cost and user preference
      • Latency and packet loss
      • Network load, battery status and RSS
      • Quality of service parameters, coverage and mobility
    • Handoff decision strategies are based on the following
      • Multiple attribute and context aware
      • FL and NN based strategies
      • Consumer surplus and RSS 
      • Pattern recognition and decision function
  • Handoff execution phase studies the following using mobile IP
    • Discovery of agents
    • Registration
    • Tunnelling

For details on algorithms and code implementations associated with these strategies mentioned above, you can contact us. We are experts in working with the advanced algorithms of vertical handover. In this regard, we have now described vertical handover algorithms below

Algorithms for vertical handover

Vertical handover decision algorithms are utilized for making handoff decisions based on criteria like Network security, coverage, cost, and RSS. Multiple Criteria Decision-making is subdivided into the following Multiple Attribute Decision-making Algorithms or MADM

  • Multiplicative Exponent Weighting (or) MEW
  • Analytic Hierarchy Process (or) AHP
  • Simple Additive Weighting (or)  SAW
  • Grey Relational Analysis (or) GRA
  • Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (or)  TOPSIS

These algorithms are highly flexible and effective. Also, they have medium implementation complexity. In general, a comparative analysis of these algorithms can become a good research source for selecting the best one. In this regard, the following is a comparative analysis of various vertical handover algorithms

Simulate Vertical Handover Projects using Network simulation tools

Comparison analysis of algorithms for vertical handover

The following is a description of the advantages and disadvantages of various MADM methods involved in the vertical handover

  • SAW and MEW
    • Merits  – Handover is trusted while the processing delay is greatly reduced
    • Demerits – The parameters considered for very minimal
    • Merits – user and traffic requirement performance are very good
    • Demerits – parameters related to quality of service are left unconsidered
  • AHP
    • Merits – computational overhead and handoff latency are reduced
    • Demerits – RSS less than the threshold value are not considered
  • GRA
    • Merits – processing delay is reduced
    • Demerits – high handoff dropping rate

Let us know have a look into the description, merits, and limitations of various categories of simulate vertical handover decision schemes,

  • Fuzzy logic based schemes
    • Quality of service parameters are used in accordance with presidents of the users to carry out decision making
    • Advantages 
      • Packet loss and handover delay are greatly reduced
      • QoS best user satisfaction and intelligent selection of networks
    • Drawbacks
      • Complexities increased
      • Delay in decision processing is higher
  • ANN based schemes
    • It can automatic learn from the behaviour of network and then handle dynamic situations
    • Advantages 
      • Network selection and handover are better and successful
      • Handover Processing delay is less
    • Drawbacks
      • Training and learning or slow while latency is very high
      • It also consumes supplementary resources
  • Schemes based on intelligent protocols
    • Intelligent schemes for network control handover are ensured by various mobility protocols
    • Advantages 
      • Good provisions for security are available
      • Handovers are successful and terminal resources are also conserved
      • Packet loss is reduced
    • Drawbacks
      • Latency is comparatively higher and that is centralised control
      • Signalling overhead is also high
  • AHP based scheme
    • Decision functions and scoring mechanisms are used for selection of networks and handover decision
    • Advantages
      • Handover latency, Network selection is optimised and throughput is very high
      • Packet loss is less
    • Drawbacks
      • Consumes more resources and QoS parameters are compromised in case of low cost networks
  • Cooperation based Schemes
    • On the basis of various network entity cooperation fully distributed handover decisions are taken
    • Advantages
      • Efficiency in decision making, system utilization and quality of service are improved
      • Completely decentralized and apt for real time streams
    • Drawbacks
      • Increase the cost of signalling
      • Packet loss is high and security provisions are also limited
  • Mobile agent based schemes
    • In case of contextual information being obtained and distributed by agents, mobile agents are used for handover decisions
    • Advantages
      • Optimisation of blocking rate and accurate context storage
      • Multiple Network adaptability and intelligent collection of contexts
    • Drawbacks
      • Communication overhead is increased and the agents are large in number
      • Real-time deployment issues are present
      • Handover latency is higher
  • Mobility Prediction Based Schemes
    • In order to make handover decisions, previous data and patterns of user mobility are obtained
    • Advantages
      • Low speed ping-pong are reduced
      • Network environments that are uncertain can use these schemes
    • Drawbacks
      • Speed variation instability and huge packet loss are encountered
      • Handover delay is also larger
  • MIH Based Schemes
    • By considering the context of user and applications predefined triggers are used in handover decisions
    • Advantages
      • Packet loss and latency are reduced
      • Optimal throughput and network selection
      • Embedded security parameters are present
    • Drawbacks
      • Context distribution and supplementary signalling
      • Increased consumption of resources

Usually, we provide the technical details of our successful projects and necessary detailed notes on all these handover decision schemes to the researchers. It is highly recommended by experts that you have a comparative study on these schemes and then continue with their research. For this purpose, you can directly connect with our engineers. We will ultimately guide you in all aspects of your research. Let us now see the ways of choosing the best vertical handover process algorithms

How to choose the best algorithm for vertical handover process?

At this point, a researcher must be aware that all the VHDA or Vertical Handover Decision Algorithms till today show a lack in implementation details and comprehensive parameters consideration

  • Vertical handover algorithms research are focusing on defining an algorithm that is useful in different conditions and meets user preferences
  • A possible solution to consider is the implementation of various Vertical Handover algorithms
  • And then using adaptive methods for intelligent algorithm selection on the basis of user preferences and conditions
  • MADMA are preferred by many Vertical handover algorithms as more number of decision making parameters are considered and the problems are decomposed in hierarchical manner

For example, in the context of a heterogeneous network with the following three network interfaces, MCDM can be effective for vertical handover decision

  • Wideband code division multiple access (or WCDMA) and wireless local area network (or WLAN)
  • Microwave access interoperability around the world (or WiMAX)

For more technical details into these network standards, you can contact our technical team at any time. We will provide you a deeper insight using authentic benchmark references and detailed descriptions with practical explanations to support you in a better way. Let us now see simulate vertical handover simulation tools

Simulation tools for vertical handover

The following simulation tools are more suitable for vertical handover projects

    • Using OPNET, we simulate wireless technology in Wi-Fi and WiMAX heterogeneous devices
    • The handover process in heterogeneous wireless networks is categorized into two sections: the handover decisions and the handover execution phase
      • The mobile node and the networks jointly decide when such a handover process must take place during the decision process
      • The handover execution procedure begins when the handover decision process is completed
    • Whenever the handover decisions and detecting process coincide, the handover execution process receives supplemental network data like the address detection rate in Mobile IPv6
  • NS3
    • For  simulations in NS3, we build LTE and WLAN-based systems
    • The diverse network nodes connect with each other during the simulation
    • Then, utilising the CEAM protocol, we complete the Vertical handover process.
  • NCTUns
    • In NCTUns 6.0, we establish WiFi and WiMAX wireless networks with such a large number of nodes and determine the RSS values of each node
    • By doing numerical simulations, we compute signal strength as well as some connectivity characteristics just like PLR and throughput
    • And then perform a vertical handover procedure based on the parameters

You can choose to use any of the simulation tools mentioned above or talk to our technical support team to know the different simulation tools being utilized by vertical handover project experts around the world. Let us not talk about analysing the performance of vertical handover processes

Research Guidance to simulate vertical handover projects

Performance analysis of vertical handover

Mobility management protocols can be developed, simulated, and evaluated using handover data. Each of the performance metrics data is critical for enhancing the handover process and quality of service. In this regard let us look into the various performance analyzing parameters for or different wireless standards

  • WiMAX
    • 3500 MHz operating frequency and 48 dBm transmission power 
    • 15 dB of antenna gain and – 3 dB of loss
    • Path loss is around 160 and EIPR is approximately 60
    • Cell radius and cell edge receiving level are 5 kilometre and – 100.11 dB respectively
    • The receiver sensitivity is about – 100 dBm
  • WLAN
    • Around 2440 MHz operating frequency and 15 dBm transmission power 
    • With 3 dB of antenna gain and – 3 dB of loss
    • Path loss is around 139 and EIPR is 20
    • Cell radius and cell edge receiving level are 0.7 kilometre and – 119 dB respectively
    • its receiver sensitivity is around -117 dBm
    • 2100 MHz operating frequency and 14 dBm transmission power 
    • 6 dB of antenna gain and – 3 dB of loss
    • Path loss is around 118 and EIPR is nearly 18
    • Cell radius and cell edge receiving level are approximately 2 kilometre and – 100.40 dB respectively
    • The sensitivity of receiver is -100 dBm

Therefore vertical handover processes can be analyzed based on these criteria and their respective Values mentioned above. In this aspect let us now have a look into the various handover mechanism parameters below.

Handover mechanism parameters

The following are the major parameters used in analysing different handover mechanism

  • Network security and throughput
  • Data rate and bandwidth
  • Latency, network load balancing and received signal strength

Usually based on these parameters we have designed successful vertical handover projects. So we gained advanced experiences in simulate vertical handover decision-making schemes. Sticking to this point let us now see the methods used in simulating vertical handover. 

How to simulate vertical handover?

  • The following are the input parameters considered for selection of vertical handover decision algorithm and its simulation
    • Availability of bandwidth and time of network connection
    • User preference and consumption of power
    • Cost, RSS and security
  • On simulation of vertical handover algorithms, its performance is evaluated on the basis of following metrics
    • Throughput and delay
    • Number of handovers
    • Probability of handover failure

In general usage of any simulation tool stands certain issues and setbacks associated with it. So in order to provide a deeper understanding of the merits and demerits of various simulation software we give you detailed explanations. Let us now talk about the various parameters that are used for the simulation of vertical handover

Simulation parameters for vertical handover

The following are the major parameters considered for the simulation of vertical handover

  • Number of MTs, parameters and WLAN radius
  • Number of medium, High and non importance levels as designated by the users
  • Factors related to high, medium and low levels of importance
  • Rate of pheromone evaporation and archive solution size
  • Tolerable probability levels of handover failure and unnecessary handover
  • Handover delay among cellular networks and WLAN
  • Rate of transmission (384 kbps and 11 Mbps for UMTS and Wi-Fi respectively) and distance covered (50 m in Wi-Fi)
  • Uplink bandwidth and transmission time interval (20 ms in UMTS)
  • Type of video traffic and link delay (15 ms for both UMTS and Wi-Fi)

Almost all our projects delivered to date have shown extraordinary results with respect to the performance metrics mentioned here. Therefore you can confidently reach out to simulate vertical handover at any time for all your project needs. We ensure to support you throughout your entire research career. 

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