Cognitive radio networks are instantaneous networks in which real-time variations are made in the network operating parameters with respect to the changes in the environment. Our researchers incorporated advanced technologies to solve the research issues in cognitive radio networks.Cognitive radio networks for CRN use the method of construction by understanding and working on the basis of the following two objectives.

  • No Interference: As cognitive radio network users use the unlicensed spectrum, they have an objective of not interfering with the spectrum of licensed users
  • High Reliability in Communication: Communication has to be the most reliable one

In cognitive radio networks, there are three major types.

  • Procedural cognitive radios
  • Policy radios
  • Ontological cognitive radios

Here is a complete overview of cognitive radio network research where our experts have provided you with the top practical solutions to the common research issues in it. let us first start with the top functions in cognitive radio.

Research Challenges in Cognitive Radio Networks


The main function of cognitive radio is the detection of usage of the communication channel. Despite this, there are many other important functions for which CRN gains advantages. The following are the top cognitive radio functions involved.

  • Receiver of every user has to be enabled for sensing of the environment in real-time (continuously)
  • Self-organized cooperation is used for the facilitation of communication among different users
  • Intention experience and self-awareness is created
  • CRN is able to learn from the environment and helps in performance adaptation by every transceiver (variations in statistical of the RF stimuli that are incoming)
  • Controlling communication processes among various users competing users

Our research experts have been guiding projects related to cognitive radio network functions. We are thus highly confident to solve any kind of issues that arise out of cognitive radio research.  Are you searching for expert guidance for your CRN project? Then you are at the right place where you can find the best possible solutions to all your research issues in Cognitive Radio Networks and challenges along with the huge amount of reliable research data which you can use to carry out your research. Now let us see the key features of CRN


The key characteristic features of cognitive radio networks are the major reasons for their popularity among users and researchers. The following is a brief note on CRN characteristics.

  • Security
    • As the radios take advantage of joining and leaving the network at any time, radio networks have to fulfill the following 
    • Authentication 
    • Authorization
    • Data protection (as information has flowed among the participants)
  • Algorithms (adaptive)
    • The following are tasks are performed at the time of radio operations
      • Policy adherence
      • Environment sensing
      • Constraints of configuration
      • Peer to peer negotiation 
      • Optimal utilization of spectrum
      • Meeting the demands of the user
  • Self – configuration 
    • Several modules are used for assembling radios
      • The examples include the following
      • Digital signal processor
      • Radiofrequency front end
      • Control processor
    • Self – describing modules are configuring automatically by themselves
    • This is called plug–and–play 
  • The environment of the radio frequency spectrum is sensed
    • Following measurements on frequency are made
      • Used frequency range
      • Time in which that frequency is used
      • Receiver and transmitter location is specified
      • Determination of modulation of signals
    • Determination of radio settings is made using the results obtained by environment sensing
  • Collaboration (distributed)
    • In CRN information is exchanged to the local environment
    • Demand of the users 
    • Regular maintenance of performance among themselves
    • Settings of operations are determined using local and peer information  
  • Configuration based on mission
    • Various requirements of operations can be met using the software
    • SDR configuration for meeting the requirements 
    • Requirements of the mission include the following
      • Operations inside the building
      • Long-distance operation 
      • High-speed movement operations
      • Substantial capability
    • Configuration oriented on the mission include the following
      • Selection of radio software modules
      • It is selected from the module library and then connected to operational radio
  • Databases and policy for configuration 
    • Policies for radio operation 
    • Radio operation limitations are stored in the radio (its availability is ensured in the network)
    • Frequencies specific locations are defined by the policies
    • Configuration databases – characteristics of operation of the radio 
    • Physical operations are limited using these databases

Cognitive radio networks are used in various applications involving one or more of their features. The data on different CRN aspects specific to particular applications are available with us. Our developers are regularly updating this list from real-time examples and instances from around the world.

So you can get all that you need for your research in CRN at the same spot with us. We are one of the highly sought online research guidance facilities in the world. Our experts are ready to render support for your CRN research. Now let us look into the common research issues in cognitive radio networks.


           You will have to overcome some very common challenges during your cognitive radio network research. These issues can be readily solved with the help of our experts. The following are the major challenges of cognitive radio networks

  • Spectrum decision 


  • Time varied characteristics of the signal
  • Controlling power
  • MAC protocols


  • Spectrum sensing coupling


  • Opportunistic access
  • Time slotting
  • Random access
  • Controlling the channel


  • Controlling the connection of channel
  • Jamming Security Attacks 


  • UWM and ISM bands
  • Licensed spectrum (dedicated)
  • Transport protocol


  • Spectrum awareness


  • TCP – CR
  • TP – CRAHN 
  • Application 


  • QoS
  • Methods of applications that are novel
  • Spectrum agnostic application issues
  • Spectrum sensing


  • Time-varying properties of the signal
  • Condition of the channel
  • Accuracy of sensing


  • Non – Cooperative approaches
  • Cooperative approaches
  • Spectrum sharing 


  • Mechanisms for coordination (novel methods)
  • Management of energy


  • Sharing of spectrum based on consensus
  • Game theory
  • Handoff 


  • Management of connection 
  • Delay 


  • Reactive and proactive handoff
  • Routing 


  • Activity of the primary user
  • Novel metrics by considering the following 
  • Channel characteristics
  • Switching delay
  • Queuing
  • Spectrum awareness
  • Route maintenance mechanism


  • Approaches based on middleware
  • Utilization of spectrum data
  • Security 


  • Integrity
  • Masquerading
  • Authorization 
  • Jamming 
  • Implementation


  • Accuracy
  • Performance 


  • SCA
  • GNU ratio

In the above section, we mentioned the different approaches used by researchers across the world in the field of CRN research.

Recent Major Research Issues in Cognitive Radio Networks

So, the following aspects can be considered as the major research issues in cognitive radio networks,

  • Allocation of resources
  • SSDF and PUEA detection
  • Access to dynamic spectrum
  • Selection of target channel and controlling error
  • Architecture (software and hardware)
  • Network Security (trusted access)
  • Strategies for sharing spectrum
  • Spectrum sensing
  • Energy harvesting
  • Sharing spectrum
  • Multi-access schemes
  • Cooperative sharing of spectrum
  • Cross-layer design
  • Hidden node terminal problem
  • Issues in sharing
  • Usage of unlicensed spectrum

You can get the technical details of all the projects based on solutions for highly sensitive research issues in Cognitive Radio Networks. Our subject experts will collect all the research data on recently devised solutions using any aspect of CRN from basic to advanced methodologies. 

Connect with us at any time to get your queries solved by our experts. Let us now talk about the spectrum sensing process along with its types and working in CRN.


Spectrum usage awareness along with the primary users’ existence data is quite important to be analyzed in CRN. The following parameters are also measured in the Cognitive radio network.

  • Measurement
  • Sensing
  • Learning 
  • Data on certain parameters (availability of spectrum and power, radio channel features, the infrastructure of the network, etc)

There are different methods involved in sensing the spectrum. It includes the usage of different aspects of cognitive radio networks. The following are the popular techniques for sensing spectrum.

  • Detecting energy
  • Cyclostationary based
  • Waveform based
  • Cooperative sensing
  • Prediction based
  • Interference based

Out of these methods, the cooperative sensing method has important merits associated with it. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing or CSS consumes extra energy as it is involved in fusion centers reporting and sensing. The energy utilized in this case is proportional to the time of sensing of CR nodes, FC selection, and the number of nodes involved in CR sensing. We give you expert solutions for some of the frequently asked questions in CRN research. As proof of this claim, let us look into the following question.

How is the spectrum shared by the nodes?

It depends primarily on the spectrum band that two CRN should be used for transmission. This in turn depends on the following.

  • Frequency
  • Channel width
  • Duration 

For this method of spectrum sharing, we will need an efficient protocol for allocation of the blocks of time–spectrum. Determination of throughput of the network along with the utilization of the overall network is made using these protocols. There are many methods used in real-time to solve the research challenges in CRN for which we have done a thorough performance analysis that can be of great significance to your research. Contact us to get those project details. Now let us see the different types of spectrum sensing systems.


Primarily the spectrum sensing systems can be classified based on certain spectrum parameters. The following are the different types of systems involved in spectrum sensing

  • Sensing based on interference
    • Transmitter – centric interference management 
    • Receiver – centric interference management 
  • Cooperative system
    • Centralized (coordinated)
    • Decentralized (coordinated)
    • Decentralized coordinated
  • Non-cooperative system
    • Cyclostationary detection
    • Energy detection 
    • Matched filter detection 

We have delivered project PhD Guidance and thesis writing support in all the above types of systems involved in spectrum sensing. Connect with us to know the technical glitches that we faced in terms of our project. Now let us see more about the challenges in spectrum sensing.


There are some common challenges faced cd by researchers while designing spectrum sensing system aspects of CR networks. The following are such problems for which you can get our expert guidance regarding the best implementable solutions.

  • Traffic modeling
  • Multiple CUs
  • Optimal sensing
  • Proactive and reactive sensing of spectrum
  • Frequency of sensing 
  • Period selection 
  • Standards in sensing
  • PU problem (hidden)
  • Security issues
  • Decision fusion 
  • Sensing frequency band
    • Blind spectrum sensing
    • Period of hopping
    • Uncertainty in noise
    • Constraints in software and hardware

As we said before, these challenges are easily overcome by our expert advice. We faced many kinds of research issues in cognitive radio networks. The challenges, that we faced, involved in spectrum sensing due to some of the technical constraints include the following.

  • DSA method evaluation along the algorithms related to adaptation 
  • Distributed spectrum coordination protocols are specified for multiple radio standards 
  • Evaluating performance in the environments of dense radios
  • Protocol interfaces and spectrum server database is specified 
  • Efficient algorithms for adaptation of frequency, rate, and power

With the huge amount of experience that we gained through research support for top CRN spectrum sensing project topics, we are highly equipped to guide you through various practical solutions for the above-mentioned problems. Get in touch with us to know more about the specificities of the solution models. Now let us see about the requirements of CRN spectrum sensing.


The following are the important requirements for the spectrum sensing process in the cognitive radio network.

  • Quick computation
    • Intelligent algorithm
    • Accuracy in sensing results
    • Simple methods for sensing
    • Security in communication 
    • Reliability 

Based on the area of application, the requirements for spectrum sensing vary widely. Accordingly, there are many problems associated with them. The different processes of spectrum sensing involve issues that are specific to them. Now let us see about the problems in spectrum allocation.


In order to understand the issues in the allocation of spectrum, you must first recall the aims to be kept in mind before allocating spectrum. The following are the objectives for the allocation of spectrum

  • Efficiency of power
    • Optimization of fairness
    • Optimization of connectivity
    • Maximizing reliability
    • Efficiency of spectrum
    • Minimizing the interference
    • Maximizing the throughput
    • Minimizing delay

The following are the techniques involved in solving spectrum allocation issues

  • Game theory
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Nonlinear programming
  • Evolutionary algorithms 
  • Graph theory
  • Linear programming
  • Heuristics
  • Markov random field
  • Reinforcement learning
    • Actor – critic learning automata-based CA algorithms
    • SA algorithms based On – policy reinforcement 
    • SA algorithms based improved Q – learning 
    • Policy gradient-based SA algorithms
    • Deep Q – networks based SA algorithms
    • Q – learning-based SA algorithms

So the major challenges in spectrum sensing and allocation lie in the use of multiple advanced algorithms and techniques involved in their processes. The main point of concern is understanding the performance of the system for which different metrics are used for analysis. Let us see the metrics for the evaluation of CRN performance below.


The factors related to the design of CRN are the major metrics used for evaluating the system performance. The following are the metrics used for evaluating the performance of Cognitive Radio Networks. 

  • Applications
    • Type of signal 
    • Standard
    • Size of the data
    • Time for transmission
  • Technology 
    • Rate of data 
    • Range of frequency
    • MAC protocol
    • Bandwidth
  • Regulations
    • Standard certificates
    • License
    • Assignment of frequency
    • Constraints of power

You can seek our experts’ guidance readily regarding the above performance evaluation metrics. There are also other metrics specific to different CRN applications which you can know in detail from our technical team. Get in touch with us at any time to know more details about research issues in cognitive radio networks and get the details of our projects.

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