SDN (Software-Defined Networking) is a network architecture which interacts with hardware systems and directs traffic on a network by implementing the effective techniques and parameters. If you encounter any obstacles during your SDN research project, we are here to support you. Our team of experts can assist you with article writing and guide you in publishing your work in reputable journals. Stay An extensive list of basically deployed algorithms and parameters are suggested below:

  1. Network Topology Discovery Algorithms
  • Objective: This algorithm is specifically used to figure out and preserve the network topology.
  • Algorithms:
  • Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
  • Original switches and links are identified here.
  • In unrestricted platforms, it functions properly.
  • Breadth-First Search (BFS)
  • To find out the network, BFS pass-through the switches and nodes.
  • Parameters:
  • Discovery Interval: The time duration taken by discovery packets for delivering is determined.
  • Timeout: It depicts the waiting time for link discovery response.
  • Protocol: CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) and LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol).
  1. Routing Algorithms
  • Objective: From source to destination, the optimal path is established through these routing algorithms.
  • Algorithms:
  • Dijkstra’s Algorithm (Shortest Path)
  • This technique is used for detecting the easiest and quickest path among nodes.
  • To detect the effective path, it makes use of link costs.
  • Bellman-Ford Algorithm
  • Effective routing modifications are assisted by this algorithm.
  • As regards multi-hop networks, it can be highly adaptable.
  • K-Shortest Paths (KSP)
  • KSP finds several optimal paths.
  • Especially for defect tolerance and load balancing, this method is very beneficial.
  • Floyd-Warshall Algorithm
  • Each pair of shortest paths is efficiently computed.
  • Parameters:
  • Link Cost Metric: Hop count, bandwidth and response time.
  • Path Calculation Interval: The time duration of computing novel paths is determined.
  • Link State Update Interval: Time period for upgrading the link states is exhibited.
  1. Load Balancing Algorithms
  • Objective: Beyond several paths or servers, it deals out the traffic uniformly.
  • Algorithms:
  • Round-Robin

Beyond all accessible paths or servers, round-robin techniques allocate the traffic in an even manner.

  • Weighted Round-Robin

In terms of capabilities or preference, it allocates weights to paths.

  • Least-Connection

Through least connections, it tracks the novel traffic to the server or path.

  • Weighted Least-Connection

For paths or servers, it allocates weight and it implements the Least-Connection algorithm.

  • Consistent Hashing

It verifies the similar client, whether it connects to the same server.

  • ECMP (Equal-Cost Multi-Path Routing)

Across several paths of similar cost, it assigns traffic.

  • Parameters:
  • Server/Path Capacity: This parameter manages the max connections or traffic of each path or server.
  • Health Check Interval: Health Check Interval depicts the time duration for ensuring each path or server.
  • Session Persistence: From the similar client flows to the similar server, it examines the traffic.
  1. Traffic Engineering Algorithms
  • Objective: Resource distribution and performance is efficiently enhanced by these algorithms.
  • Algorithms:
  • Max-Min Fairness

Among each traffic flow, it distributes resources.

  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

It offers divergent preferences to traffic flows.

  • Shortest Path First (SPF)

On the basis of shortest path measures, SPF guides the traffic.

  • Constraint Shortest Path First (CSPF)

Depending on response time or bandwidth, this technique allocates traffic.

  • Parameters:
  • Flow Priority: For every traffic flow, it allocates its priority.
  • Traffic Class: Best-effort, interactive, real-time and more.
  • Bandwidth Allocation: Especially for each class or flow, this parameter determines minimum or maximum bandwidth.
  1. QoS and Flow Control Algorithms
  • Objective: It particularly assures the demands of QoS (Quality of Service), whether it is addressed.
  • Algorithms:
  • Rate Limiting

For certain traffic flows, these techniques constrain the data.

  • RED (Random Early Detection)

It drops packets early to prevent traffic.

  • Flow Queue Scheduling

According to flow preferences, it assigns bandwidth.

  • Leaky Bucket / Token Bucket

This method applies a token mechanism to restrict the flow rate.

  • Parameters:
  • Queue Size: In switches, it represents the size of packet queues.
  • Rate Limit: For certain traffic flows; rate limit determines the maximum data rate.
  • Drop Probability: It exhibits the probability of dropping packets in RED.
  1. Security Algorithms
  • Objective: In opposition to harmful traffic and assaults, this security algorithm effectively secures the SDN networks.
  • Algorithms:
  • Access Control Lists (ACL)

To access or refuse certain traffic flows, ACL specifies the measures significantly.

  • Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI)

Regarding the unusual patterns, it supervises the network traffic.

  • Anomaly Detection (Machine Learning)

In accordance with flow statistics, anomaly detection figures out the harmful traffic.

  • IPsec (Internet Protocol Security)

To verify the authenticity and secrecy, it encrypts network traffic.

  • Parameters:
  • Rule Priority: For security measures, this parameter allocates the priority.
  • Detection Threshold: Traffic anomaly detection threshold.
  • Encryption Algorithm: 3DES, AEs and more.
  1. Network Virtualization Algorithms
  • Objective: Across physical network systems, this algorithm aids in developing virtual networks.
  • Algorithms:
  • VLAN (Virtual LAN)

Network traffic is assigned into logical VLANs.

  • VXLAN (Virtual eXtensible LAN)

To expand VLANs, it integrates Ethernet frames.

  • GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation)

Among sites, GRE implements a tunnel network.

  • MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching)

Based on MPLS labels, it allocates traffic.

  • Parameters:
  • VLAN ID: For each VLN, VLAN provides a specific ID.
  • VXLAN Network ID (VNID): It offers a particular ID for each VXLAN network.
  • Label Switching Path (LSP): LSP determines the path which is taken by MPLS traffic.
  • Tunnel Key: Primarily for GRE tunnels, tunnel keys act as a client ID.
  1. Controller-to-Switch Communication Protocols
  • Objective: Among SDN and controller switches, it creates a secure and authentic communication protocol.
  • Protocols:
  • OpenFlow: Versions 1.0 to 1.5.
  • NETCONF/YANG: Data modeling language and protocol.
  • P4 Runtime: It is an effective API for programmable switches.
  • BGP-LS (Border Gateway Protocol – Link State)

Through SDN controllers, it distributes link-state details.

  • GRPC (Google Remote Procedure Call)

For advanced SDN controllers, GRPC is an efficient communication framework.

  • Parameters:
  • Protocol Version: OpenFlow 1.0, 1.3 and more.
  • Communication Port: Regarding controller-switch communication, this port is highly adaptable.
  • Authentication Mechanism: Certificate-based and TLS.
  • Message Timeout: It represents the timeout for control messages.

What kinds of programming languages are used in developing Software Defined Networking SDN?

In the process of developing SDN (Software-Defined networking), programming languages enact a crucial role. Based on SDN formulation, we propose an extensive outline of general programming languages along with applications and sample program:

  1. Controllers and Control Applications

By using northbound APIs, controllers and control applications effectively handles the network and it implements southbound APIs to communicate with switches such as OpenFlow.

  • Python
  • Controllers: POX and Ryu.
  • Use-cases:

In routing, security and network traffic engineering, Python is highly adaptable.

  • Characteristics:
  • Effective and wealthy networking libraries and easy syntax.
  • For the purpose of instant prototyping and scripting, it is an appropriate application.

# Example POX controller code (

From pox.core import core

Import pox.openflow.libopenflow_01 as of

Log = core.getLogger ()

Class SimpleSwitch (object):

  Def __init__ (self):

 core.openflow.addListeners (self)

Def _handle_ConnectionUp (self, event): (“Switch %s has connected”, event.connection)

 Def _handle_PacketIn (self, event):

 Msg = of.ofp_packet_out () =

Action = of.ofp_action_output (port=of.OFPP_FLOOD)

msg.actions.append (action)

 Event.connection. Send (msg)

Def launch ():

 core.registerNew (SimpleSwitch)

  • Java
  • Controllers: Floodlight, ONOs and ODL (OpenDayLight).
  • Use-cases:

Applicable areas are flow control, topology discovery and Network orchestration.

  • Characteristics:
  • For complicated SDN controllers, Java is an object-oriented, scalable and capable language.
  • Here, some of the prevalent JVM (Java Virtual Machine) languages such as Kotlin and Scala are involved.

// Example Java code for an OpenDaylight application



Public class SimpleApp {

    Private final DataBroker dataBroker;

    Public SimpleApp (final DataBroker dataBroker) {

        this. DataBroker = dataBroker;


 Public void create Node (String nodeId) {

        InstanceIdentifier<Node> nodeId = InstanceIdentifier.builder (Nodes. Class)

            .child (Node.class, new NodeKey (new NodeId (nodeId)))

            .build ();

Node Builder nodeBuilder = new NodeBuilder ();

        nodeBuilder.setNodeId (new NodeId (nodeId));

  WriteTransaction TX = dataBroker.newWriteOnlyTransaction ();

        tx.put (LogicalDatastoreType.CONFIGURATION, nodeIID, ());

  1. Commit ();



  • C/C++
  • Controllers: Trema and NOX.
  • Use-cases:

It is beneficial in low-level network applications which need efficient performance.

  • Characteristics:
  • Considering the controllers and applications, C and C++ is a best language.
  • The memory management and minimal runtime expenses are directed.

// Example C++ code for a NOX module

#include “nox/coreapps.hh”

#include “nox/core.hh”

#include “nox/data.hh”

#include “nox/netmatch.hh”

Class SimpleApp: public coreapp {


    SimpleApp (): coreapp (“SimpleApp”) {}


    Void install () {

        Match_rule rule;

        rule.add_match (“dl_type”, ETHERTYPE_IP);

        add_packet_handler (rule, boost::bind (&SimpleApp: handle_PacketIn, this, _1));


   Void handle_PacketIn (const match_rule &rule) {

        // Packet handling logic



Register application (SimpleApp, “SimpleApp”);

  • Go
  • Controllers: ONOS (Partially), Kube-OVN and CORD.
  • Use-cases:

For kubernetes, it might be employed in controllers and specific plugins.

  • Characteristics:
  • Lightweight goroutines and Concurrency support.

// Example Go code for a simple HTTP SDN application

Package main

Import (




Func handle Request (w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {

    fmt.Fprintf (w, “Hello, SDN!”


Func main () {

  http.HandleFunc (“/”, handle Request)

  http.ListenAndServe (“:8080”, nil)


  1. Programmable Data Planes

It specifically deploys specific languages such as conventional C or P4, data planes could be programmed.

  • P4
  • Application: P4 is very essential for programming the network packet functioning pipelines.
  • Properties:
  • This language is applied with software targets and programmable switches.
  • It is a target-agnostic and protocol-free language.

// Example P4 code for a simple L2 switch (basic.p4)

Header ethernet_t {

    Bit<48> dstAddr;

    Bit<48> srcAddr;

    Bit<16> etherType;


Struct headers {

    Ethernet_t Ethernet;


Parser MyParser (packet_in pkt, out headers hdr) {

    State start {

        pkt.extract (hdr.ethernet);

        Transitions accept;



Control My Ingress (inout headers hdr) {

    Apply {

        If (hdr.ethernet.etherType == 0x0800) {

            hdr.ethernet.dstAddr = hdr.ethernet.srcAddr;




Control MyDeparser (packet_out pkt, in headers hdr) {

    Apply {

        pkt.emit (hdr.ethernet);



Control MySwitch (inout headers hdr) {

    MyIngress () my_ingress;

    MyDeparser () my_deparser;

    Apply {

        my_ingress.apply ();

        my_deparser.apply ();



MySwitch () main;

  • C
  • Application: C uses XDP/eBPF to program packet processing.
  • Properties:
  • High performance packet processing and it is a low-level language.

// Example C code for an eBPF XDP program

#include <linux/bpf.h>

#include <bpf/bpf_helpers.h>

SEC (“xdp”)

Int xdp_prog_simple (struct xdp_md *ctx) {

    Void *data_end = (void *) (long) ctx->data_end;

    Void *data = (void *) (long) ctx->data;

Struct ethhdr *eth = data;

    If (eth + 1 > data_end)

        Return XDP_DROP;

 If (eths->h_proto == bpf_htons (ETH_P_IP))

        Return XDP_PASS;

 Return XDP_DROP;


Char _license [] SEC (“license”) = “GPL”;

  1. SDN Orchestration
  • Application: API definitions and Network configuration file are the applicable areas of SDN orchestration.
  • Properties:
  • Across several environments, SDN is deployed broadly for its user-friendly and assisted functions.

# Example YAML files for Kubernetes network policies


Kind: Network Policy


  Name: allow-frontend

  Namespace: my-app



    Match Labels:

      Role: frontend

  Policy Types:

    – Ingress


    – From:

        – PodSelector:

            Match Labels:

              Role: backend


  • Controllers: C/C++, Go, Java and Python.
  • Data Planes: C and P4.
  • Orchestration: JSON and YAML.


  • Learners: For controller generation, begin with Python or Java language.
  • Forward-Looking: As regards programmable data planes, investigate eBPF or P4.
SDN Implementation Support

SDN Implementation for Research Projects is a leading provider of Research Projects for scholars who are excelling in SDN Implementation. We guide you on the right path towards success with experts explanation. Stay connected with us for all your research needs.

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